Judo techniques can be divided between Throwing Techniques, (Nage Waza), and Grappling Techniques, (Katame Waza). Throwing Techniques can further be divided into Standing Techniques, (Tachi Waza), and Sacrifice throws, (Sutemi Waza). Likewise, Grappling Techniques can be divided into Pinning Techniques, (Osaekomi Waza), Strangling Techniques, (Shime Waza), and Joint Locking Techniques, (Kansetsu Waza).
In a Judo competition, the aim is to use a combination of these techniques to either throw an opponent onto their back with full control, to immobilise them on their back, or to force them to submit through a strangle or armbar.
Below is a list of five main sets of techniques that are used for grading. It should also be remembered that there are also countless variations, combinations and counters!
Throws (Five main sets)
DE-ASHI-HARAI (Advanced Leg Throw), HIZA-GURUMA (Knee Wheel), SASAE-TSURI-KOMI-ASHI (Propping Drawing Ankle), UKI-GOSHI (Floating Hip), O-SOTO-GARI (Major Outer Reap), O-GOSHI: (Major Hip), O-UCHI-GARI (Major Inner Reap), SEOI-NAGE (Shoulder Throw).
KO-SOTO-GARI (Minor Outer Reap), KO-UCHI-GARI (Minor Inner Reap), KOSHI-GURUMA (Hip Wheel), TSURI-KOMI-GOSHI (Lift Pull Hip), OKURI-ASHI-HARAI (Sweeping Ankle), TAI-OTOSHI (Body Drop), HARAI-GOSHI (Sweeping Hip), UCHI-MATA (Inner Thigh).
KO-SOTO-GAKE (Minor Outer Hook), TSURI-GOSHI (Lifting Hip), YOKO-OTOSHI (Side Drop), ASHI-GURUMA (Leg Wheel), HANE-GOSHI (Spring Hip), HARAI-TSURI-KOMI-ASHI (Sweeping Drawing Ankle), TOMOE-NAGE (Stomache Throw), KATA-GURUMA (Shoulder Wheel).
SUMI-GAESHI (Corner Throw), TANI-OTOSHI (Valley Drop), HANE-MAKIKOMI (Outer Winding Spring), SUKUI-NAGE (Scooping THrow), UTSURI-GOSHI (Changing Hip), O-GURUMA (Major Wheel), SOTO-MAKIKOMI (Major Outer Winding), UKI-OTOSHI (Floating drop).
O-SOTO-GURUMA (Major Outer Wheel), UKI-WAZA (Floating Drop), YOKO-WAKARE (Side separation), YOKO-GURUMA (Side Wheel), USHIRO-GOSHI (Rear Hip), URA-NAGE (Rear Throw), SUMI-OTOSHI (Corner Drop), YOKO-GAKE (Side Hook)
Osaekomi Waza (Hold Downs)
KESA-GATAME (Scarf Hold)
KATA-GATAME (Shoulder Hold)
KAMI-SHIHO-GATAME (Upper Four Corners Hold)
USHIRO-KESA-GATAME (Rear Scarf Hold)
YOKO-SHIHO-GATAME (side Four Corners Hold)
TATE-SHIHO-GATAME (Vertical Four Corners Hold)